Brain and spinal cord with dural membranes (meninges) still intact, held aloft and viewed posteriorly.
Below the skull and around the spinel cord are three special coverings called the meninges. You may have heard of the illness called meningitis. Meningitis is an infection of the meninges.
The outer layer of the meninges is called the dura mater or just the dura. The dura is tough and thick andit can restrict the movement of the brain within the skull. This protects the brain from movements that may stretch and break brain blood vessels.
The middle layer of the meninges is called the arachnoid. The inner layer, the one closest to the brain, is called the pia mater or just the pia.
Visual simplification: http://tinyurl.com/qfwuhxs
Here is an easy way to remember the order of the meninges:
"The meninges PAD the brain." Pia; Arachnoid; Dura
I wanted to see if this was an actual real thing that had happened, because, you know, we’ve had all-glass skyscrapers for ages, and I’ve never heard of this happening before.
It is. Of course the problem isn’t the building’s glass exterior. It’s that it’s curved:
Which is incredible because anyone with a rudimentary grasp of physics could have told them that this would happen:
So in addition to being heavy-handed satire about first world excess, it’s also a pretty on-point reminder of another way we’re going wrong: resurgent anti-intellectualism means that fewer and fewer people are consulting with or listening to scientists.
Anyway, back to your joke.
Man, there was some architect who did this in the Sunbelt in the US, and before they built it, everyone was like “No, bro. You can’t do this. There’s gonna come a time of day when the focus is going to be enough for shit in the Cone of Death to literally spontaneously combust.”
So long story short, the compromise was the Architect McDude sacrificed his artist vision just enough so that the Cone of Death became the Cone of Great Discomfort, and the patch of sidewalk and street affected by it shoots from like 90 to 130 for something like fifteen, twenty feet at the wrong time of day.
Study of neurogenesis in mice may have solved mystery of childhood amnesia in humans
A team of researchers working at the University of Toronto in Canada may have found the answer to the question of why we humans tend to have little to no memory of the first few years of our lives. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes several experiments they ran on mice and other small mammals that revealed the impact of neurogenesis on memory and how what they learned might be applied to memory retention in people. Lucas Mongiat and Alegandro Schinder offer a review of memory studies and how the research by the team in Toronto fits in with what has already been learned in a Perspective piece in the same journal edition.
this could mean a lot for forensic neuroscience as well! Go Toronto!
The unstoppable glaciers of Antarctica
In the last few decades, glaciers in western Antarctica have been flowing out to the ocean at a faster rate. Researchers from NASA and UC Irvine have been observing the glaciers in this area with 40 years of satellite data and have concluded that they’re melting at an unstoppable rate.
The issue lies in the fact that as a glacier moves faster to the ocean it thins out. This makes it lighter and able to float easier on water. So a larger area of the glacier is touching the warming currents of the ocean. This becomes a multiplying effect: more of the glacier melts at a faster rate.
The dangers of this is that these glaciers contribute to a large percentage of sea level rise and in just two hundred years could raise the sea level by four feet.
The Google doodle celebrates Percy Julian on Friday, April 11, 2014.
Percy Lavon Julian (April 11, 1899, Montgomery, Al. – April 19, 1975, Waukegan, Illinois) was a U.S. research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.He was the first to synthesize the natural product physostigmine, and a pioneer in the industrial large-scale chemical synthesis of the human hormones, steroids, progesterone, and testosterone, from plant sterols such as stigmasterol and sitosterol. His work would lay the foundation for the steroid drug industry’s production of cortisone, other corticosteroids, and birth control pills.
He later started his own company to synthesize steroid intermediates from the Mexican wild yam. His work helped greatly reduce the cost of steroid intermediates to large multinational pharmaceutical companies, helping to significantly expand the use of several important drugs.
During his lifetime he received more than 130 chemical patents. Julian was one of the first African-Americans to receive a doctorate in chemistry. He was the first African-American chemist inducted into the National Academy of Sciences, and the second African-American scientist inducted from any field.
Scientists unpack testosterone’s role in schizophrenia
Testosterone may trigger a brain chemical process linked to schizophrenia but the same sex hormone can also improve cognitive thinking skills in men with the disorder, two new studies show.
Scientists have long suspected testosterone plays an important role in schizophrenia, which affects more men than women. Men are also more likely to develop psychosis in adolescence, previous research has shown.
A new study on lab rodents by researchers from Neuroscience Research Australia analysed the impact increased testosterone had on levels of dopamine, a brain chemical linked to psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.
The researchers found that testosterone boosted dopamine sensitivity in adolescent male rodents.
“From these rodent studies, we hypothesise that adolescent increases in circulating testosterone may be a driver of increased dopamine activity in the brains of individuals susceptible to psychosis and schizophrenia,” said senior Neuroscience Research Australia researcher and author of the study, Dr Tertia Purves-Tyson, who is presenting her work at the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research in Florida this week.
Dr Philip Mitchell, Scientia Professor and Head of the School of Psychiatry at the University of NSW, said the research was very interesting.
“The relationship between sex steroids, such as testosterone, and psychiatric disorders has long intrigued researchers. For example, we have known for many years that schizophrenia presents earlier in males than females, but the biological mechanism for this has been poorly understood,” said Dr Mitchell, who was not involved in the study.
“The rodent study by Professor Shannon Weickert from the School of Psychiatry at UNSW and NeuRA is therefore of particular interest. This study suggests an important interplay between circulating testosterone levels and the brain’s sensitivity to dopamine – a neurochemical which has been long implicated in the cause of schizophrenia,” said Dr Mitchell.
“This study suggests that it is the interplay between testosterone and dopamine which is critical. This is an important observation which may very well throw an important light on solving the puzzle of the biological causes of schizophrenia.”
A separate study by Dr Thomas Weickert at Neuroscience Research Australia examined the role testosterone plays in the cognitive thinking skills of men with schizophrenia.
The researchers examined testosterone levels in a group of 29 chronically ill men with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and a control group of 20 healthy men and asked both groups to take a series of cognition tests.
“Circulating testosterone levels significantly predicted performance on verbal memory, processing speed, and working memory in men with schizophrenia … such that increased normal levels of testosterone were beneficial to thought processing in men with schizophrenia but circulating sex steroid levels did not appear to be related to cognitive function in healthy men,” the researchers reported.
“The results suggest that circulating sex steroids may influence thought processes in men with schizophrenia.”
Dr Melanie McDowall, a researcher at the University of Adelaide’s Robinson Institute, said the study added to a large body of evidence demonstrating a link between testosterone and schizophrenia.
“This is not surprising, given the link between testosterone and dopamine,” she said, adding that symptoms of schizophrenia predominantly began after puberty.
“However, as with most endocrine and mental illnesses, schizophrenia is multifaceted (genetic, environmental etc.), hence this may not be the be all and end.”
You know, my homie and secret best friend Neil deGrasse Tyson said it best….
This isn’t an issue of belief or should even be up for discussion. It’s not a debate- like gravity or that the Earth revolves around the Sun isn’t up for debate. It’s a fact, whether or not you like it. Sorry bro.
And any ‘educated fuck’ knows that vaccines are necessary and everyone who can have them should have them.
Have a lovely day, sugar.
Actually there’s a lot of research and knowledge supporting the fact that vaccines are NOT necessary. It is simply another thing that today’s health system is super big on, just like hospital births and c-sections. And a lot of people actually have long term and short term complications from getting vaccines. Ahem.
Dang guys, you thought I didn’t check my activity log every now and then? Because I knew shit like this would pop up. And, I just finished my block exam and am feeling fiesty.
Actually you’re wrong. That ‘research’ is either completely fabricated OR grossly misinterprets the data OR uses shitty research techniques to get the data they want- all which are grossly unethical, in case you’re curious. I’ve got slides from a recent lecture on vaccines (aka why I am so fired up about this nonsense). You can check out the citations on each slide if you don’t believe me… something unsurprisingly missing from literally every anti-vaccine comment I’ve gotten and website that I have visited. Show me your sources, honey, and if you do, I will blow them out of the water because not a single one stands up to current scientific research standards.
There are however tomes and tomes of research for the safety end efficacy of vaccines. Don’t believe me? Look at a simple google scholar search.
So! Here we go!
Holy shit, it’s almost like vaccines SAVE SOCIETY MONEY. In fact, they give money back to society, along with the other programs indicated by red arrows. Which would be really weird for something that is just a healthcare fad like c-sections and hospital births.
And most people have no complications for getting vaccines, and if they do, most of them are short term. In fact, it is devilishly hard to prove an adverse effect was because of a vaccine. Why? Because it’s how we’re wired. We falsely see connections and causes where there are none (called a type 1 error; you are rejecting a true null hypothesis). People are more likely to attribute an adverse health event to a shot- even if that shot is the placebo and the numbers are just the background rate for whatever health event in the population.
And here is a graph showing the sample sizes necessary to prove that an adverse event is caused or related to a vaccine.
You know what, it was a really good lecture and I’m going to share more more relevant slides in case any one else feels like contradicting me.
These slides show the public health impact of vaccines. Note the differences between the historical peak and post-vaccine era deaths columns. Because saving literally thousands of lives is totally a conspiracy you should beware of.
And this is why herd immunity is so important! See how high it has to be for measles? Guess what we’re seeing outbreaks of thanks to anti-vaxxers? Don’t forget that one of the deadly complications of measles is SSPE.
Look how Hepatitis A infections in older adults when down after kids started getting immunized. Shocking! Could vaccines be… good for …. everyone????
Some claim that evolution is just a theory, as if it were merely an opinion.
NASA’s recent discovery of Kepler-186f, the first habitable Earth-sized planet is big news in humankind’s long search for extraterrestrial life.
A universe full of exoplanets: Thanks to the Kepler Space Telescope, which was launched in 2009 to hunt planets across the universe, we’ve managed to find around 1800 exoplanets so far, many of which have been discovered in just the last year or so.
A young man lies unconscious on the table, his head clamped firmly in place. His eyes are closed. The hair over his left temple has been shaved.
Continue reading: How a surgeon installs seizure sensors inside a skull
(Image courtesy: University of Utah, Department of Neurosurgery)
TONY STARK DOES SCIENCE
Scientists have for the first time synthesized a chromosome of a eukaryotic cell (in this case, a yeast).
A genetic sequence was designed on a computer, then pieced together and integrated into a living yeast cell to create a semi-artificial life-form.
Infographic by Karl Tate. Source: LiveScience
Pusheen the cat making some chemistry.
That cat is not wearing safety goggles, he hasn’t even bothered to clean up that spilled solvent, and he is holding that Erlenmeyer flask way to close to his face.
Pusheen the Cat, more like Pusheen the limits of lab safety
Some might know Nichelle Nichols best from Star Trek, but this actress, singer, dancer and space advocate has much to say beyond her role in TV’s exploration of the final frontier. In this exclusive interview, she talks about how science fiction and Star Trek—and specifically her ground-breaking role as Chief Communications Officer Lt. Uhura—not only impacted her life, but also had an influence on society over space and time.
This is a really wonderful interview. She sings “Beyond Antares” (she still has a totally amazing voice btw) and discusses how she got onto Star Trek and her decision to stay on the show.